Physics | PHYS | 401 | Electromagnetism I | 4 hours. | Vector calculus; electrostatic fields in vacuum; solution of electrostatic boundary-value problems; electrostatic fields in material media; electrostatic energy; electric currents. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 142 and PHYS 215; or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 402 | Electromagnetism II | 4 hours. | Magnetic fields of steady currents and magnetic materials; electromagnetic induction; magnetic energy; slowly-varying currents; a-c circuits; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves; bounded regions; special relativity. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 401. |

Physics | PHYS | 411 | Quantum Mechanics I | 4 hours. | Wave particle duality; wave functions; Schroedinger equation; mathematical structure of quantum mechanics; operators and observables; matrix representation of operators; three dimensional Schroedinger equation. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 215 and PHYS 244 and PHYS 245; or approval of the department. Recommended background: MATH 220. |

Physics | PHYS | 412 | Quantum Mechanics II | 4 hours. | This is the second semester of a two-semester undergraduate level sequence on the concepts and methods of Quantum Mechanics and their applications. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 411. |

Physics | PHYS | 421 | Modern Physics: Atoms and Molecules | 4 hours. | Hydrogenic atoms, electron spin, external fields, multi-electron atoms, diatomic molecules, line widths, photons, radiation from atoms and other electromagnetic processes, positrons, positronium, elastic electron scattering. Prerequisite(s): Credit or concurrent registration in PHYS 411. |

Physics | PHYS | 425 | Modern Optics | 4 hours. | Review of electromagnetic wave theory; advanced geometrical optics; Fourier transforms and optics; interference and diffraction; solar cells and LEDs; laser cavities and gain media; introduction to nonlinear and fiber optics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 244 or graduate standing. |

Physics | PHYS | 431 | Modern Physics: Condensed Matter | 4 hours. | Crystal structures; interatomic binding; lattice vibrations; thermal and magnetic properties; quantum statistical mechanics; free electron theory of metals; electronic band theory; semiconductors and insulators; superconductivity. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 411 and PHYS 461; or consent of the instructor. |

Physics | PHYS | 441 | Theoretical Mechanics | 4 hours. | Covers variable motion, non-inertial frames, oscillations, rigid body motion, three-dimensional motion, angular momentum, torque, orbits, Lagrange's equations.Prerequisite(s): PHYS 142 and PHYS 215. |

Physics | PHYS | 450 | Molecular Biophysics of the Cell | 4 hours. | Introduction to force, time energies at nanometer scales; Boltzmann distribution; hydrodynamic drag; Brownian motions; DNA, RNA protein structure and function; sedimentation; chemical kinetics; general aspects of flexible polymers. Same as BIOE 450. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 245 or the equivalent. |

Physics | PHYS | 451 | Modern Physics: Nuclei and Elementary Particles | 4 hours. | Accelerators, detectors, symmetries, conservation laws, leptons, weak interactions, electroweak theory, strong interactions, hadrons, nuclear forces, systematics and reactions, nuclear models, nuclear astrophysics, quarks, quantum chromodynamics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 411. |

Physics | PHYS | 461 | Thermal and Statistical Physics | 4 hours. | Thermal equilibrium (Zeroth Law); thermodynamic states (First Law); irreversibility; entropy (Second Law); thermodynamic potentials and properties; phase transitions; kinetic theory of gases; classical statistical mechanics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 245. |

Physics | PHYS | 470 | Educational Practice with Seminar I | 6 hours. | The first half of a two-segment sequence of practice teaching, including seminar, to meet certification requirements for teaching in grades six through twelve. Graduate credit only with approval of the department. Prerequisite(s): Good academic standing in a teacher education program, completion of 100 clock hours of pre-student-teaching field experiences, and approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 471 | Educational Practice with Seminar II | 6 hours. | The second half of a two-segment sequence of practice teaching, including seminar, to meet certification requirements for teaching in grades six through twelve. Graduate credit only with approval of the department. Prerequisite(s): Good academic standing in a teacher education program, completion of 100 clock hours of pre-student-teaching field experiences, credit or concurrent registration in PHYS 470, and approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 481 | Modern Experimental Physics I | 4 hours. | Theory and experimental use of linear circuits, semiconductor devices, amplifiers, oscillators. Techniques and experiments in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 244. Requires concurrent registration in PHYS 499. |

Physics | PHYS | 482 | Modern Experimental Physics II | 4 hours. | Techniques and experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Gamma-gamma correlations, muon lifetime, Compton scattering, alpha particle scattering. Computer-based experimentation. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 481. |

Physics | PHYS | 491 | Special Topics in Physics | 1 TO 4 hours. | Selected topics of current interest in Physics. May be repeated. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 215 and sophomore standing or above; or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 494 | Special Topics in Physics Teaching | 2 TO 4 hours. | Seminar on various topics related to the teaching of physics. Subjects are announced. May be repeated. Students may register in more than one section per term. Supervised teaching practice included. Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 499 | Survey of Physics Problems | 1 hours. | Problem-solving techniques applied to the variety of undergraduate physics topics. No graduation credit for graduate students. Grade of C or better required to graduate with an undergraduate degree in physics. Co-requisite(s):Concurrent registration in PHYS 481. |

Physics | PHYS | 501 | Electrodynamics I | 4 hours. | Maxwell's equations, static and time dependent fields in material media and in vacuo. Boundary value problems, wave propagation. Classical theory of radiation. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 402 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 502 | Electrodynamics II | 4 hours. | Special relativity in electrodynamics. Covariant form of Maxwell's equations. Lagrangian form of electrodynamics. Applications to modern physics problems. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 501 or consent of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 511 | Quantum Mechanics I | 4 hours. | Linear operators, vector spaces. Schroedinger equation. Heisenberg formalism. Multi/identical particle systems, approximation methods, perturbation theory, symmetries and groups, conservation laws, angular momentum, spin. Wigner-Eckart theorem. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 412 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 512 | Quantum Mechanics II | 4 hours. | Scattering theory, partial waves, Born approximation, density matrix, interaction of radiation with matter; Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, free-particle solutions, antiparticles, relativistic hydrogen atom. Second quantization. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 511 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 513 | Quantum Field Theory I | 3 hours. | Lagrangian formulation of relativistic wave equations. Quantum electrodynamics: Feynman rules, trace theorems, lowest-order calculations for several processes, self-energy, renormalization, higher-order diagrams. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512. |

Physics | PHYS | 514 | Quantum Field Theory II | 3 hours. | Path integrals, gauge theories, Weinberg-Salam model, electroweak processes, quantum chromodynamics, non-perturbative methods, topological objects in field theories, instantons. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 513. |

Physics | PHYS | 515 | Methods in Mathematical Physics | 3 hours. | Applications of mathematical methods to physics problems, linear operators, orthogonal functions, Green's functions, ordinary and partial differential equations, Sturm-Liouville problem, Hilbert space, group theory. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 215. |

Physics | PHYS | 521 | Molecular Physics | 3 hours. | Rotational and vibrational energies of molecules, potential curves, electronic transitions, transition moments, intensity rules, thermodynamic properties. Applications. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 411 and PHYS 421; or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 522 | Laser Physics/Quantum Electronics | 3 hours. | Laser physics; population inversion; quantum theoretical calculation; modern laser systems; coherence phenomena; applications of lasers. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 521 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 524 | Group Theory in Physics | 3 hours. | Applications of group theory and symmetry principles to problems in elementary particle, solid state, atomic and molecular physics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 525 | Optics and Photonics | 2 hours. | Electromagnetic wave theory; advanced geometrical, nonlinear, fiber, and Fourier optics; Fourier transforms; interference; diffraction; solar cells; LEDs; laser cavities; gain media. More challenging problem sets, exams, labs than in Phys 425. Corequisites: Requires concurrent registration in PHYS 425. To be properly registered, students must enroll in one Lecture, one Laboratory, and one Discussion. |

Physics | PHYS | 531 | Solid State Physics I | 3 hours. | Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice, X-ray methods, crystal forces, phonons, heat capacity, thermal expansion. Classification of solids, band structure. Metals: free-electron model, band-structure effects, transport. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 412 AND PHYS 461. |

Physics | PHYS | 532 | Solid State Physics II | 3 hours. | Semiconductor physics, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, superconductivity, spin systems, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and anti-ferromagnetism. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 531. |

Physics | PHYS | 533 | Theory of Solids: Magnetism and Superconductivity | 3 hours. | The main body problem; many-particle states; functional integrals; Green's functions; Feynman diagrams; perturbation expansions; tree diagrams. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512 and PHYS 532. |

Physics | PHYS | 534 | Theory of Solids: Semiconductor Physics | 3 hours. | Spin systems; magnetism; equilibrium Green's functions; Landau theory of Fermi liquids; Hubbard model; Luttinger model, non-equilibrium Green's functions, Keldysh, Kadanoff-Baym approach. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512 and PHYS 532. |

Physics | PHYS | 540 | Physics of Semiconductor Devices | 4 hours. | Electrons in periodic lattice; equilibrium carrier distribution; energy band diagrams in junctions, in homogeneous semiconductors; recombination and generation; non-equilibrum processes, radiation and electric fields; diodes. Same as ECE 540. Prerequisite(s): ECE 346 or the equivalent. |

Physics | PHYS | 545 | Introduction to General Relativity | 3 hours. | Principle of equivalence, the metric field and geodesics, tensor analysis and differential geometry, Einstein's equations and the action principle, gravitational fields and waves, black holes. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 502 and PHYS 541 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 551 | Elementary Particle Physics I | 3 hours. | Phenomenology and theories of modern day particle physics. Classification of particles and their interactions. Survey of experimental techniques, accelerators and detectors. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 552 | Elementary Particle Physics II | 3 hours. | Lagrangian formulation of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. Transition rates. Unification of electroweak and strong interactions. Gauge theories. Modern topics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 551 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 561 | Statistical Mechanics | 3 hours. | Density matrix. Information theory; Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution; the n-vector model; renormalization group theory; cellular automata. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 461 or approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 581 | Advanced Experimental Physics | 2 hours. | Experimental techniques in atomic, molecular and solid-cular and solid-state physics. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 431 or consent of the instructor. |

Physics | PHYS | 594 | Special Topics in Modern Physics | 1 TO 4 hours. | Lectures on topics of current interest. Subjects are announced in the previous semester. May be repeated. Students may register in more than one section per term. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 512. |

Physics | PHYS | 595 | Graduate Seminar | 1 hours. | Seminars in areas of research activity within the department covering recent contributions to the literature and research in progress. Presentations by students, faculty and scientists from other institutions. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated to a maximum of 6 hours. Students may register in more than one section per term. |

Physics | PHYS | 596 | Individual Study | 2 TO 4 hours. | Special topics. Outside reading and a term paper are assigned by a special arrangement with the department and faculty. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated. Students may register in more than one section per term. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 598 | Master's Thesis Research | 0 TO 16 hours. | Student may elect to do thesis research to fulfill partial requirement for master's degree. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department. |

Physics | PHYS | 599 | Thesis Research | 0 TO 16 hours. | Ph.D. thesis research. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department. |